The American History Company


WAR AND PEACE, 1812-1829

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Higginson's Larger History, 365-442; Scribner's Popular History, IV; Lossing's Field-Book of the War of 1812; Coffin's Building the Nation, 149-231.

Home Readings.--Barnes's Yankee Ships; Roosevelt's Naval War of 1812; Seawell's Midshipman Paulding; Holmes's Old Ironsides; Goodwin's Dolly Madison.



American plan of campaign, 1812.
Objections to it.

260. Plan of Campaign, 1812.--The American plan of campaign was that General Hull should invade Canada from Detroit. He could then march eastward, north of Lake Erie, and meet another army which was to cross the Niagara River. These two armies were to take up the eastward march and join a third army from New York. The three armies then would capture Montreal and Quebec and generally all Canada. It was a splendid plan. But there were three things in the way of carrying it out: (i) there was no trained American army; (2) there were no supplies for an army when gathered and trained; and (3) there was a small, well-trained and well-supplied army in Canada.

[Illustration: DETROIT, ABOUT 1815.]

Hull's march to Detroit.
His misfortunes.
He surrenders Detroit, 1812.

261. Hull's Surrender of Detroit, 1812.--In those days Detroit was separated from the settled parts of Ohio by two hundred miles of wilderness. To get his men and supplies to Detroit, Hull had first of all to cut a road through the forest. The British learned of the actual declaration of war before Hull knew of it. They dashed down on his scattered detachments and seized his provisions. Hull sent out expedition after expedition to gather supplies and bring in the scattered settlers. Tecumthe and the other Indian allies of the British captured one expedition after another. The British advanced on Detroit, and Hull surrendered. By this disaster the British got control of the upper lakes. They even invaded Ohio.

[Illustration: PERRY'S BATTLE FLAG.]

Battle of Lake Erie 1813. McMaster, 234-235.
Battle of the Thames, 1813.

262. Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, 1813.--But the British triumph did not last long. In the winter of 1812-13 Captain Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet of warships on Lake Erie. They were built of green timber cut for the purpose. They were poor vessels, but were as good as the British vessels. In September, 1813, Perry sailed in search of the British ships. Coming up with them, he hoisted at his masthead a large blue flag with Lawrence's immortal words, "Don't give up the ship" (p. 212), worked upon it. The battle was fiercely fought. Soon Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, was disabled and only nine of her crew were uninjured. Rowing to another ship, Perry continued the fight. In fifteen minutes more all the British ships surrendered. The control of Lake Erie was now in American hands. The British retreated from the southern side of the lake. General Harrison occupied Detroit. He then crossed into Canada and defeated a British army on the banks of the river Thames (October, 1813).

[Illustration: THE "CONSTITUTION." From an early painting of the escape of the Constitution from the British fleet. The men in the boat are preparing to carry out a small anchor.]

The Constitution.
Chased by a British fleet, 1812.
She escapes.

263. The Frigate Constitution.--One of the first vessels to get to sea was the Constitution, commanded by Isaac Hull. She sailed from Chesapeake Bay for New York, where she was to serve as a guard-ship. On the way she fell in with a British squadron. The Constitution sailed on with the whole British fleet in pursuit. Soon the wind began to die away. The Constitution's sails were soaked with water to make them hold the wind better. Then the wind gave out altogether, Captain Hull lowered his boats and the men began to tow the ship. But the British lowered their boats also. They set a great many boats to towing their fastest ship, and she began to gain on the Constitution. Then Captain Hull found that he was sailing over shoal water, although out of sight of land, so he sent a small anchor ahead in a boat. The anchor was dropped and men on the ship pulled in the anchor line. This was done again and again. The Constitution now began to gain on the British fleet. Then a sudden squall burst on the ships. Captain Hull saw it coming and made every preparation to take advantage of it. When the rain cleared away, the Constitution was beyond fear of pursuit. But she could not go to New York, so Captain Hull took her to Boston. The government at once ordered him to stay where he was; but, before the orders reached Boston, the Constitution was far away.

Constitution and Guerrière, 1812.
Reasons for the victory.

264. Constitution and Guerrière, 1812.--For some time Hull cruised about in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. One day he sighted a British frigate--the Guerrière--one of the ships that had chased the Constitution. But now that Hull found her alone, he steered straight for her. In thirty minutes from the firing of the first gun the Guerrière was a ruinous wreck. All of her masts and spars were shot away and most of her crew were killed or wounded. The Constitution was only slightly injured, and was soon ready to fight another British frigate, had there been one to fight. Indeed, the surgeons of the Constitution went on board of the Guerrière to help dress the wounds of the British seamen. The Guerrière was a little smaller than the Constitution and had smaller guns. But the real reason for this great victory was that the American ship and the American guns were very much better handled than were the British ship and the British guns.

Wasp and the Frolic.
Effect of these victories.

265. The Wasp and the Frolic, 1812.--At almost the same time the American ship Wasp captured the British brig Frolic. The Wasp had three masts, and the Frolic had only two masts. But the two vessels were really of about the same size, as the American ship was only five feet longer than her enemy, and had the lighter guns. In a few minutes after the beginning of the fight the Frolic was a shattered hulk, with only one sound man on her deck. Soon after the conflict a British battleship came up and captured both the Wasp and her prize. The effect of these victories of the Constitution and the Wasp was tremendous. Before the war British naval officers had called the Constitution "a bundle of sticks." Now it was thought to be no longer safe for British frigates to sail the seas alone. They must go in pairs to protect each other from "Old Ironsides." Before long the Constitution, now commanded by Captain Bainbridge, had captured the British frigate Java, and the frigate United States, Captain Decatur, had taken the British ship Macedonian. On the other hand, the Chesapeake was captured by the Shannon. This victory gave great satisfaction to the British. But Captain Lawrence's last words, "Don't give up the ship," have always been a glorious inspiration to American sailors.


Plan of campaign, 1814.
Battle of Lundy's Lane, 1814.

266. Brown's Invasion of Canada, 1814.--In the first two years of the war the American armies in New York had done nothing. But abler men were now in command. Of these, General Jacob Brown, General Macomb, Colonel Winfield Scott, and Colonel Ripley deserve to be remembered. The American plan of campaign was that Brown, with Scott and Ripley, should cross the Niagara River and invade Canada. General Macomb, with a naval force under McDonough, was to hold the line of Lake Champlain. The British plan was to invade New York by way of Lake Champlain. Brown crossed the Niagara River and fought two brilliant battles at Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. The latter battle was especially glorious because the Americans captured British guns and held them against repeated attacks by British veterans. In the end, however, Brown was obliged to retire.

Invasion of New York.
Battle of Plattsburg, 1814.

267. McDonough's Victory at Plattsburg, 1814.--General Prevost, with a fine army of veterans, marched southward from Canada, while a fleet sailed up Lake Champlain. At Plattsburg, on the western side of the lake, was General Macomb with a force of American soldiers. Anchored before the town was McDonough's fleet. Prevost attacked Macomb's army and was driven back. The British fleet attacked McDonough's vessels and was destroyed. That put an end to Prevost's invasion. He retreated back to Canada as fast as he could go.

[Illustration: FORT McHENRY.]

Burning of Washington, 1814.
"The Star-Spangled Banner."

268. The British in the Chesapeake, 1814.--Besides their operations on the Canadian frontier, the British tried to capture New Orleans and the cities on Chesapeake Bay. The British landed below Washington. They marched to the capital. They entered Washington. They burned the Capitol, the White House, and several other public buildings. They then hurried away, leaving their wounded behind them. Later on the British attacked Baltimore and were beaten off with great loss. It was at this time that Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner." He was detained on board one of the British warships during the fight. Eagerly he watched through the smoke for a glimpse of the flag over Fort McHenry at the harbor's mouth. In the morning the flag was still there. This defeat closed the British operations on the Chesapeake.

[Illustration: FLAG OF FORT McHENRY. Fifteen stars and fifteen stripes--one of each for each state.]

Jackson's Creek campaign, 1814.

269. The Creek War.--The Creek Indians lived in Alabama. They saw with dismay the spreading settlements of the whites. The Americans were now at war. It would be a good chance to destroy them. So the Creeks fell upon the whites and murdered about four hundred. General Andrew Jackson of Tennessee commanded the American army in the Southwest. As soon as he knew that the Creeks were attacking the settlers, he gathered soldiers and followed the Indians to their stronghold. He stormed their fort and killed most of the garrison.

[Illustration: BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. From a sketch by one of Jackson's staff.]

Battle of New Orleans, 1815.
Hero Tales, 139-147.

270. Jackson's Defense of New Orleans, 1814-15.--Jackson had scarcely finished this work when he learned of the coming of a great British expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River. He at once hastened to the defense of New Orleans. Below the city the country greatly favored the defender. For there was very little solid ground except along the river's bank. Picking out an especially narrow place, Jackson built a breastwork of cotton bales and rubbish. In front of the breastwork he dug a deep ditch. The British rushed to the attack. Most of their generals were killed or wounded, and the slaughter was terrible. Later, they made another attack and were again beaten off.

Naval combats, 1814.

271. The War on the Sea, 1814.--It was only in the first year or so of the war that there was much fighting between American and British warships. After that the American ships could not get to sea, for the British stationed whole fleets off the entrances to the principal harbors. But a few American vessels ran the blockade and did good service. For instance, Captain Charles Stewart in the Constitution captured two British ships at one time. But most of the warships that got to sea were captured sooner or later.

The privateers. Hero Tales, 129-136.

272. The Privateers.--No British fleets could keep the privateers from leaving port. They swarmed upon the ocean and captured hundreds of British merchantmen, some of them within sight of the shores of Great Britain. In all, they captured more than twenty-five hundred British ships. They even fought the smaller warships of the enemy.

Treaty of peace, 1814.

273. Treaty of Ghent, 1814.--The war had hardly begun before commissioners to treat for peace were appointed by both the United States and Great Britain. But they did nothing until the failure of the 1814 campaign showed the British government that there was no hope of conquering any portion of the United States. Then the British were ready enough to make peace, and a treaty was signed at Ghent in December, 1814. This was two weeks before the British disaster at New Orleans occurred, and months before the news of it reached Europe. None of the things about which the war was fought were even mentioned in the treaty. But this did not really make much difference. For the British had repealed their orders as to American ships before the news of the declaration of war reached London. As for impressment, the guns of the Constitution had put an end to that.

[Illustration: THE OLD STATE HOUSE. Where the Hartford Convention met.]

New England Federalists.
Hartford Convention, 1814.

274. The Hartford Convention, 1814.--While the New commissioners were talking over the treaty of peace, other debaters were discussing the war, at Hartford, Connecticut. These were leading New England Federalists. They thought that the government at Washington had done many things that the Constitution of the United States did not permit it to do. They drew up a set of resolutions. Some of these read like those other resolutions drawn up by Jefferson and Madison in 1798 (p. 175). The Hartford debaters also thought that the national government had not done enough to protect the coasts of New England from British attacks. They proposed, therefore, that the taxes collected by the national government in New England should be handed over to the New England states to use for their defense. Commissioners were actually at Washington to propose this division of the national revenue when news came of Jackson's victory at New Orleans and of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. The commissioners hastened home and the Republican party regained its popularity with the voters.


Gains of the war.
The American nation.

275. Gains of the War.--The United States gained no territory after all this fighting on sea and land. It did not even gain the abolition of impressment in so many words. But what was of far greater importance, the American people began to think of itself as a nation. Americans no longer looked to France or to England as models to be followed. They became Americans. The getting of this feeling of independence and of nationality was a very great step forward. It is right, therefore, to speak of this war as the Second War of Independence.

[Illustration: JAMES MONROE.]



Monroe elected President, 1816, 1820.
Characteristics of the Era of Good Feeling. McMaster, 260.

276. The Era as a Whole.--The years 1815-24 have been called the Era of Good Feeling, because there was no hard political fighting in all that time--at least not until the last year or two. In 1816 Monroe was elected President without much opposition. In 1820 he was reëlected President without any opposition whatever. Instead of fighting over politics, the people were busily employed in bringing vast regions of the West under cultivation and in founding great manufacturing industries in the East. They were also making roads and canals to connect the Western farms with the Eastern cities and factories. The later part of the era was a time of unbounded prosperity. Every now and then some hard question would come up for discussion. Its settlement would be put off, or the matter would be compromised. In these years the Federalist party disappeared, and the Republican party split into factions. By 1824 the differences in the Republican party had become so great that there was a sudden ending to the Era of Good Feeling.

Hard times, 1816-18.
Emigration to the West, 1816-18. McMaster, 241, 266-273.
Four states admitted, 1816-1819.
Maine and Missouri apply for admission.

277. Western Emigration.--During the first few years of this period the people of the older states on the seacoast felt very poor. The shipowners could no longer make great profits. For there was now peace in Europe, and European vessels competed with American vessels. Great quantities of British goods were sent to the United States and were sold at very low prices. The demand for American goods fell off. Mill owners closed their mills. Working men and women could find no work to do. The result was a great rush of emigrants from the older states on the seaboard to the new settlements in the West. In the West the emigrants could buy land from the government at a very low rate, and by working hard could support themselves and their families. This westward movement was at its height in 1817. In the years 1816--19, four states were admitted to the Union. These were Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817), Illinois (1818), and Alabama (1819). Some of the emigrants even crossed the Mississippi River and settled in Missouri and in Arkansas. In 1819 they asked to be admitted to the Union as the state of Missouri, or given a territorial government under the name of Arkansas. The people of Maine also asked Congress to admit them to the Union as the state of Maine.

Objections to the admission of Missouri.

278. Opposition to the Admission of Missouri.--Many people in the North opposed the admission of Missouri because the settlers of the proposed state were slaveholders. Missouri would be a slave state, and these Northerners did not want any more slave states. Originally slavery had existed in all the old thirteen states. But every state north of Maryland had before 1819 either put an end to slavery or had adopted some plan by which slavery would gradually come to an end. Slavery had been excluded from the Northwest by the famous Ordinance of 1787 (p. 135). In these ways slavery had ceased to be a vital institution north of Maryland and Kentucky. Why should slavery be allowed west of the Mississippi River? Louisiana had been admitted as a slave state (1812). But the admission of Louisiana had been provided for in the treaty for the purchase of Louisiana from France. The Southerners felt as strongly on the other side. They said that their slaves were their property, and that they had a perfect right to take their property and settle on the land belonging to the nation. Having founded a slave state, it was only right that the state should be admitted to the Union.

[Illustration: (Map) Missouri Compromise of 1820]

This Missouri Compromise, 1820. Higginson, 254-256; Eggleston, 258-261.
Both states admitted, 1820. McMaster,274-276.

279. The Missouri Compromise, 1820.--When the question of the admission of Maine and Missouri came before Congress, the Senate was equally divided between the slave states and the free states. But the majority of the House of Representatives was from the free states. The free states were growing faster than were the slave states and would probably keep on growing faster. The majority from the free states in the House, therefore, would probably keep on increasing. If the free states obtained a majority in the Senate also, the Southerners would lose all control of the government. For these reasons the Southerners would not consent to the admission of Maine as a free state unless at the same time Missouri was admitted as a slave state. After a long struggle Maine and Missouri were both admitted--the one as a free state, the other as a slave state. But it was also agreed that all of the Louisiana purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri, with the single exception of the state of Missouri, should be free soil forever. This arrangement was called the Missouri Compromise. It was the work of Henry Clay. It was an event of great importance, because it put off for twenty-five years the inevitable conflict over slavery.


Reasons for the purchase of Florida.
Jackson invades Florida, 1818.
The Florida purchase, 1819.

280. The Florida Treaty, 1819.--While this contest was going on, the United States bought of Spain a large tract of land admirably suited to negro slavery. This was Florida. It belonged to Spain and was a refuge for all sorts of people: runaway negroes, fugitive Indians, smugglers, and criminals of all kinds. Once in Florida, fugitives generally were safe. But they were not always safe. For instance, in 1818 General Jackson chased some fleeing Indians over the boundary. They sought refuge in a Spanish fort, and Jackson was obliged to take the fort as well as the Indians. This exploit made the Spaniards more willing to sell Florida. The price was five million dollars. But when it came to giving up the province, the Spaniards found great difficulty in keeping their promises. The treaty was made in 1819, but it was not until 1821 that Jackson, as governor of Florida, took possession of the new territory. Even then the Spanish governor refused to hand over the record books, and Jackson had to shut him up in prison until he became more reasonable.


Formation of the Holy Alliance.
It interferes in Spanish affairs.
The Spanish Americans colonists rebel against Spain.
Russian attempts at colonization.

281. The "Holy Alliance."--Most of the people of the other Spanish colonies were rebelling against Spain, and there was a rebellion in Spain itself. There were rebellions in other European countries as well as in Spain. In fact, there seemed to be a rebellious spirit nearly everywhere. This alarmed the European emperors and kings. With the exception of the British king, they joined together to put down rebellions. They called their union the Holy Alliance. They soon put the Spanish king back on his throne. They then thought that they would send warships and soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to crush the rebellions in the Spanish colonies. Now the people of the United States sympathized with the Spanish colonists in their desire for independence. They also disliked the idea of Europeans interfering in American affairs. "America for Americans," was the cry. It also happened that Englishmen desired the freedom of the Spanish colonists. As her subjects Spain would not let them buy English goods. But if they were free, they could buy goods wherever they pleased. The British government therefore proposed that the United States and Great Britain should join in a declaration that the Spanish colonies were independent states. John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, was Monroe's Secretary of State. He thought that this would not be a wise course to follow, because it might bring American affairs within European control. He was all the more anxious to prevent this entanglement, as the Czar of Russia was preparing to found colonies on the western coast of North America and Adams wanted a free hand to deal with him.

The Monroe Doctrine, 1822. McMaster, 262-265.
Action of Great Britain. End of European interference in America.

282. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823.--It was under these circumstances that President Monroe sent a message to Congress. In it he stated the policy of the United States as follows: (1) America is closed to colonization by any European power; (2) the United States have not interfered and will not interfere in European affairs; (3) the United States regard the extension of the system of the Holy Alliance to America as dangerous to the United States; and (4) the United States would regard the interference of the Holy Alliance in American affairs as an "unfriendly act." This part of the message was written by Adams. He had had a long experience in diplomacy. He used the words "unfriendly act" as diplomatists use them when they mean that such an "unfriendly act" would be a cause for war. The British government also informed the Holy Allies that their interference in American affairs would be resented. The Holy Alliance gave over all idea of crushing the Spanish colonists. And the Czar of Russia agreed to found no colonies south of fifty-four degrees and forty minutes north latitude.

Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.

283. Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.--The ideas contained in Monroe's celebrated message to Congress are always spoken of as the Monroe Doctrine. Most of these ideas were not invented by Monroe or by Adams. Many of them may be found in Washington's Neutrality Proclamation, in Washington's Farewell Address, in Jefferson's Inaugural Address, and in other documents. What was new in Monroe's message was the statement that European interference in American affairs would be looked upon by the United States as an "unfriendly act," leading to war. European kings might crush out liberty in Europe. They might divide Asia and Africa among themselves. They must not interfere in American affairs.



End of Monroe's administrations.

284. End of the Era of Good Feeling.--The Era of Good Feeling came to a sudden ending in 1824. Monroe's second term as President would end in 1825. He refused to be a candidate for reëlection. In thus following the example set by Washington, Jefferson, and Madison, Monroe confirmed the custom of limiting the presidential term to eight years. There was no lack of candidates to succeed him in his high office.

J.Q. Adams

285. John Quincy Adams.--First and foremost was John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. He was Monroe's Secretary of State, and this office had been a kind of stepping-stone to the presidency. Monroe had been Madison's Secretary of State; Madison had been Jefferson's Secretary of State; and Jefferson had been Washington's Secretary of State, although he was Vice-President when he was chosen to the first place. John Quincy Adams was a statesman of great experience and of ability. He was a man of the highest honor and intelligence. He was nominated by the legislatures of Massachusetts and of the other New England states.

[Illustration: John C. Calhoun.]

W.H. Crawford.
Tenure of Office Act.
The Crawford machine.

286. William H. Crawford.--Besides Adams, two other members of Monroe's cabinet wished to succeed their chief. These were John C. Calhoun and William H. Crawford. Calhoun soon withdrew from the contest to accept the nomination of all the factions to the place of Vice-President. Crawford was from Georgia and was Secretary of the Treasury. As the head of that great department, he controlled more appointments than all the other members of the cabinet put together. The habit of using public offices to reward political friends had begun in Pennsylvania. Washington, in his second term, Adams, and Jefferson had appointed to office only members of their own party. Jefferson had also removed from office a few political opponents (p. 187). But there were great difficulties in the way of making removals. Crawford hit upon the plan of appointing officers for four years only. Congress at once fell in with the idea and passed the Tenure of Office Act, limiting appointments to four years. Crawford promptly used this new power to build up a strong political machine in the Treasury Department, devoted to his personal advancement. He was nominated for the presidency by a Congressional caucus and became the "regular" candidate.

Henry Clay.
Andrew Jackson.

287. Clay and Jackson.--Two men outside of the cabinet were also put forward for Monroe's high office. These were Andrew Jackson of Tennessee and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay and Calhoun had entered politics at about the same time. They had then believed in the same policy. Calhoun had abandoned his early ideas. But Clay held fast to the policy of "nationalization." He still favored internal improvements at the national expense. He still favored the protective system. He was the great "peacemaker" and tried by means of compromises to unite all parts of the Union (p. 222). He loved his country and had unbounded faith in the American people. The legislatures of Kentucky and other states nominated him for the presidency. The strongest man of all the candidates was Andrew Jackson, the "Hero of New Orleans." He had never been prominent in politics. But his warlike deeds had made his name and his strength familiar to the voters, especially to those of the West. He was a man of the people, as none of his rivals were. He stood for democracy and the Union. The legislatures of Tennessee and other states nominated Jackson for the presidency.

The election of 1824.
It goes to the House of Representatives.
The House chooses Adams.

288. Adams chosen President, 1824.--The election was held. The presidential electors met in their several states and cast their votes for President and Vice-President. The ballots were brought to Washington and were counted. No candidate for the presidency had received a majority of all the votes cast. Jackson had more votes than any other candidate, next came Adams, then Crawford, and last of all Clay. The House of Representatives, voting by states, must choose one of the first three President. Clay, therefore, was out of the race. Clay and his friends believed in the same things that Adams and his friends believed in, and had slight sympathy with the views of Jackson or of Crawford. So they joined the Adams men and chose Adams President. The Jackson men were furious. They declared that the Representatives had defeated the "will of the people."

[Illustration: JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.]

Adams appoints Clay Secretary of State.
Charges of a bargain.
Weakness of Adams's administration.

289. Misfortunes of Adams's Administration.--Adams's first mistake was the appointment of Clay as Secretary of State. It was a mistake, because it gave the Jackson men a chance to assert that there had been a "deal" between Adams and Clay. They called Clay the "Judas of the West." They said that the "will of the people" had been defeated by a "corrupt bargain." These charges were repeated over and over again until many people really began to think that there must be some reason for them. The Jackson men also most unjustly accused Adams of stealing the nation's money. The British government seized the opportunity of Adams's weak administration to close the West India ports to American shipping.

Early tariff laws.
The tariff of 1816.
Tariff of 1824.

290. Early Tariffs.--Ever since 1789 manufactures had been protected (p. 155). The first tariff rates were very low. But the Embargo Act, the non-intercourse law, and the War of 1812 put an end to the importation of foreign goods. Capitalists invested large amounts of money in cotton mills, woolen mills, and iron mills. With the return of peace in 1815, British merchants flooded the American markets with cheap goods (p. 220). The manufacturers appealed to Congress for more protection, and Congress promptly passed a new tariff act (1816). This increased the duties over the earlier laws. But it did not give the manufacturers all the protection that they desired. In 1824 another law was drawn up. It raised the duties still higher. The Southerners opposed the passage of this last law. For they clearly saw that protection did them no good. But the Northerners and the Westerners were heartily in favor of the increased duties, and the law was passed.

Agitation for more protection, 1828.
Scheme of the Jackson men.
Tariff of 1828.

291. The Tariff of Abominations, 1828.--In 1828 another presidential election was to be held. The manufacturers thought that this would be a good time to ask for even higher protective duties, because the politicians would not dare to oppose the passage of the law for fear of losing votes. The Jackson men hit upon a plan by which they would seem to favor higher duties while at the same time they were really opposing them. They therefore proposed high duties on manufactured goods. This would please the Northern manufacturers. They proposed high duties on raw materials. This would please the Western producers. But they thought that the manufacturers would oppose the final passage of the bill because the high duties on raw materials would injure them very much. The bill would fail to pass, and this would please the Southern cotton growers. It was a very shrewd little plan. But it did not work. The manufacturers thought that it would be well at all events to have the high duties on manufactured goods--perhaps they might before long secure the repeal of the duties on raw materials. The Northern members of Congress voted for the bill, and it passed.

Election of 1828.
Jackson elected President. McMaster, 301.

292. Jackson elected President, 1828.--In the midst of all this discouragement as to foreign affairs and this contest over the tariff, the presidential campaign of 1828 was held. Adams and Jackson were the only two candidates. Jackson was elected by a large majority of electoral votes. But Adams received only one vote less than he had received in 1824. The contest was very close in the two large states of Pennsylvania and New York. Had a few thousand more voters in those states cast their votes for Adams, the electoral votes of those states would have been given to him, and he would have been elected. It was fortunate that Jackson was chosen. For a great contest between the states and the national government was coming on. It was well that a man of Jackson's commanding strength and great popularity should be at the head of the government.



§§ 260-262.--a. Explain by a map the American plan of campaign and show its advantages and disadvantages.

b. Describe Perry's victory. How did this turn the scale of war?

§§ 263-265.--a. Describe the escape of the Constitution from the British fleet. Describe the destruction of the Guerrière and of the Frolic. What was the reason for the American successes?

b. Why was the effect of these victories so great?

c. Why did the capture of the Chesapeake cause so much delight in England? Why are Lawrence's words so inspiring?

§§ 266, 267.--a. Compare the second plan for the invasion of Canada with the earlier one.

b. Discuss the events of Brown's campaign and its results.

c. Compare Prevost's campaign with Burgoyne's. Why was it unsuccessful?

d. What do Perry's and McDonough's victories show?

§§ 268.--a. Why were the British attacks directed against these three portions of the country?

b. Describe the attack on Washington. Was the burning of the public buildings justifiable?

c. Read the "Star-Spangled Banner" and explain the allusions.

§§ 269, 270.--a. Describe Jackson's plans for the defense of New Orleans. Why were they so successful?

b. Why did not this success of the Americans have more effect on the peace negotiations?

§§ 271, 272.--a. Why were most of the naval conflicts during the first year of the war? What is a blockade? What is a privateer?

b. What work did the privateers do?

§ 273.--a. Why was so little advance made at first toward a treaty of peace?

b. Why was the news of the treaty so long in reaching Washington?

c. What was settled by the war?

§ 274.--a. Were the Federalists or the Republicans more truly the national party?

b. What propositions were made by the Hartford Convention? If such proposals were carried out, what would be the effect on the Union?

c. Compare the principles underneath these resolutions with those of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

§275.--a. Note carefully the effect of this war.

b. Why is it called the Second War of Independence?


§§ 276, 277.--a. What is meant by the Era of Good Feeling? Is this period more important or less important than the period of war which preceded it? Why?

b. What matters occupied the attention of the people?

c. What shows the sudden increase in Western migration?

§§ 278, 279.--a. State carefully the objections to the admission of Missouri on the part of the Northerners. Why did the Southerners object to the admission of Maine?

b. Trace on a map the line between the free states and the slave states. Why was slavery no longer of importance north of this line? Why was it important south of this line?

c. Why were the free states gaining faster than the slave states?

d. Explain the Missouri Compromise. How did the Compromise postpone the conflict over slavery?

§ 280.--a. Why was Florida a danger to the United States?

b. What people in the United States would welcome the purchase of Florida?

c. What does this section show you as to Jackson's character?

§ 281.--a. Why was the Holy Alliance formed? What did the allies propose as to America?

b. How was this proposal regarded by Americans? Why?

c. How was it regarded by Englishmen? Why?

§§ 282, 283.--a. Explain carefully the four points of Monroe's message.

b. Were these ideas new? What is an "unfriendly act"?

c. What action did Great Britain take? What was the result of the declarations of the United States and Great Britain.

d. What was the new point in Monroe's message?

e. Do we still keep to the Monroe Doctrine in all respects?


§§ 284-288.--a. Who were the candidates for President in 1824? Describe the qualities and careers of each of them. For whom would you have voted had you had the right to vote in 1824?

b. How were these candidates nominated? What is a caucus?

c. Describe the Tenure of Office Act. Should a man be given an office simply because he has helped his party?

d. In what respects was Jackson unlike the early Presidents?

e. What was the result of the election? Who was finally chosen? Why? If you had been a Representative in 1824, for whom would you have voted? Why?

f. What is a majority? A plurality?

§ 289.--a. Why was the appointment of Clay a mistake?

b. What charges were made against Adams?

c. Describe the misfortunes of Adams's administration.

§§ 290, 291.--a. How are manufactures protected?

b. Why were the protective tariffs of no benefit to the Southerners?

c. Why was an attempt for a higher tariff made in 1828?

d. Explain the plan of the Jackson men. Why did the plan fail?

§ 292.--a. Describe the election of 1828.

b. How was Jackson fitted to meet difficulties?


a. Why was the navy better prepared for war than the army?

b. Why did slaveholders feel the need of more slave territory in the Union?

c. Jackson has been called "a man of the people." Explain this title.


a. Early life of Andrew Jackson (to 1828).

b. A battle of the War of 1812, e.g. Lake Erie, Lundy's Lane, Plattsburg, New Orleans, or a naval combat.

c. The frigate Constitution.

d. The career of Clay, of Calhoun, of J.Q. Adams, or of Monroe.


The results of the War of 1812 should be carefully studied and compared with the proposals of the Hartford Convention. These last can be taught by comparison with the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

To the Missouri Compromise much time and careful explanation should be given. Touch upon the economic side of slavery, and explain how the continued supremacy of the slave power was threatened.

The Monroe Doctrine is another difficult topic; but it can be explained by recent history.

The election of 1824 can be carefully employed to elucidate the mode of electing President, and the struggle over the tariffs can be illustrated by recent tariff contests.

[Illustration: FLAG ADOPTED IN 1818. A star for each state and a stripe for each of the original states.]

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