"Our children shall behold his fame,
The kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man,
Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame,
New birth of our new soil, the first American."
Table of Contents
A SHORT HISTORY
THE UNITED STATES
FOR SCHOOL USE
PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY
AUTHOR OF "A STUDENTS' HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES," ETC.
WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
The aim of this little book is to tell in a simple and concise
form the story of the founding and development of the United
States. The study of the history of one's own country is a serious
matter, and should be entered upon by the text-book writer, by the
teacher, and by the pupil in a serious spirit, even to a greater
extent than the study of language or of arithmetic. No effort has
been made, therefore, to make out of this text-book a story book.
It is a text-book pure and simple, and should be used as a
text-book, to be studied diligently by the pupil and expounded
carefully by the teacher.
Most of the pupils who use this book will never have another
opportunity to study the history and institutions of their own
country. It is highly desirable that they should use their time in
studying the real history of the United States and not in learning
by heart a mass of anecdotes,--often of very slight importance, and
more often based on very insecure foundations. The author of this
text-book, therefore, has boldly ventured to omit most of the
traditional matter which is usually supposed to give life to a
text-book and to inspire a "love of history,"--which too often
means only a love of being amused. For instance, descriptions of
the formation of the Constitution and of the struggle over the
extension of slavery here occupy the space usually given to the
adventures of Captain John Smith and to accounts of the
institutions of the Red Men. The small number of pages available
for the period before 1760 has necessitated the omission of
"pictures of colonial life," which cannot be briefly and at the
same time accurately described. These and similar matters can
easily be studied by the pupils in their topical work in such books
as Higginson's Young Folks' History, Eggleston's United
States and its People, and McMaster's School History.
References to these books and to a limited number of other works
have been given in the margins of this text-book. These citations
also mention a few of the more accessible sources, which should be
used solely for purposes of illustration.
It is the custom in many schools to spread the study of American
history over two years, and to devote the first year to a detailed
study of the period before 1760. This is a very bad arrangement. In
the first place, it gives an undue emphasis to the colonial period;
in the second place, as many pupils never return to school, they
never have an opportunity to study the later period at all; in the
third place, it prevents those pupils who complete this study from
gaining an intelligent view of the development of the American
people. And, finally, most of the time the second year is spent in
the study of the Revolutionary War and of the War for the Union. A
better way would be to go over the whole book the first year with
some parallel reading, and the second year to review the book and
study with greater care important episodes, as the making of the
Constitution, the struggle for freedom in the territories, and the
War for the Union. Attention may also be given the second year to a
study of industrial history since 1790 and to the elements of civil
government. It is the author's earnest hope that teachers will
regard the early chapters as introductory.
Miss Annie Bliss Chapman, for many years a successful teacher of
history in grammar schools, has kindly provided a limited number of
suggestive questions, and has also made many excellent suggestions
to teachers. These are all appended to the several divisions of the
work. The author has added a few questions and a few suggestions of
his own. He has also altered some of Miss Chapman's questions.
Whatever there is commendable in this apparatus should be credited
to Miss Chapman. Acknowledgments are also due to Miss Beulah Marie
Dix for very many admirable suggestions as to language and form.
The author will cordially welcome criticisms and suggestions from
any one, especially from teachers, and will be very glad to receive
notice of any errors.
March 29, 1900.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION, 1000-1600.
1. The European Discovery of
2. Spanish and French Pioneers in the United
3. Pioneers of England.
4. French Colonists, Missionaries,
5. Virginia and Maryland.
6. New England.
7. New Netherland and New
A CENTURY OF COLONIAL HISTORY, 1660-1760.
8. The Colonies under Charles
9. Colonial Development, 1688-1760.
10. Expulsion of the French.
COLONIAL UNION, 1760-1774.
11. Britain's Colonial
12. Taxation without Representation.
13. Revolution impending.
THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1775-1783.
14. Bunker Hill to
15. The Great Declaration and the French
THE CRITICAL PERIOD, 1783-1789.
17. The Confederation,
18. Making of the Constitution,
THE FEDERALIST SUPREMACY, 1789-1801.
19. Organization of the
20. Rise of Political Parties.
21. The Last Federalist
THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS, 1801-1812.
22. The United States in
23. Jefferson's Administrations.
24. Causes of the War of
WAR AND PEACE, 1812-1829.
25. The Second War of
26. The Era of Good Feeling,
27. New Parties and New Policies,
THE NATIONAL DEMOCRACY, 1829-1844.
28. The American People in
29. The Reign of Andrew Jackson,
30. Democrats and Whigs,
SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES, 1844-1859.
31. Beginning of the Antislavery
32. The Mexican War.
33. The Compromise of 1850.
34. The Struggle for Kansas.
35. The United States in
36. Secession, 1860-1861.
THE WAR FOR THE UNION, 1861-1865.
37. The Rising of the Peoples,
38. Bull Run to Murfreesboro',
39. The Emancipation Proclamation.
40. The Year 1863.
41. The End of the War,
RECONSTRUCTION AND REUNION, 1865-1869.
42. President Johnson and
43. From Grant to Cleveland,
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 1889-1900.
44. Confusion in
45. The Spanish War.
Table of Dates
1815-1824. Era of Good Feeling.
1819. The Florida Treaty.
1820. Missouri Compromise.
1823. The Monroe Doctrine.
1825. The Erie Canal.
1828. Election of Jackson.
1830. The Locomotive.
1832. The Nullification Episode.
1840. Election of William H. Harrison.
1844. The Electric Telegraph.
1845. The Horse Reaper.
1845. Annexation of Texas.
1846. The Oregon Treaty.
1846-1848. The Mexican War (Acquisition of California, New Mexico,
1849. California (Discovery of Gold).
1850. Compromise of 1850.
1854. Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1857. The Dred Scott Case.
1861-1865. The War for the Union.
1863. Emancipation Proclamation, Vicksburg, and Gettysburg.
1867. Purchase of Alaska.
1867. Reconstruction Acts.
1868. Impeachment of Johnson.
1876. The Electoral Commission.
1881-1883. Civil Service Reform.
1890. Sherman Silver Law (Repealed, 1893).
1898. The War with Spain.
TO THE TEACHER
The lists of "Books for Study and Reading" contain such titles
only as are suited to the pupil's needs. The teacher will find
abundant references in Channing's Students' History of the
United States (N.Y., Macmillan). The larger work also contains
the reasons for many statements which are here given as facts
without qualification. Reference to the Students' History is
made easy by the fact that the divisions or parts (here marked by
Roman numerals) cover the same periods in time as the chapters of
the larger work. On the margins of the present volume will be found
specific references to three text-books radically unlike this
text-book either in proportion or in point of view. There are also
references to easily accessible sources and to a few of the larger
works. It is not suggested that any one pupil, or even one class,
shall study or read all of these references. But every pupil may
well read some of them under each division. They are also suited to
topical work. Under the head of "Home Readings" great care has been
taken to mention such books only as are likely to be found
The books most frequently cited in the margins are Higginson's
Young Folks' History (N.Y., Longmans), cited as
"Higginson"; Eggleston's United States and its People
(N.Y., Appleton), cited as "Eggleston", McMaster's School
History of the United States (N.Y., American Book Co.), cited
as "McMaster"; Higginson's Book of American Explorers
(N.Y., Longmans), cited as "Explorers"; Lodge and Roosevelt,
Hero Tales from American History, cited as "Hero
Tales"; and Hart's Source-Book of American History
(N.Y., Macmillan), cited as "Source-Book." Books containing
sources are further indicated by an asterisk.
On to Section I: I